Author: studentdivisionmpa

I can’t believe we have to say this… but trans people deserve healthcare!

By Milo Due & Quincy Guinadi

Credit: ACLU

On Friday, June 12, the Department of Health and Human Services finalized a decision to eliminate federal protections for transgender patients to prevent discrimination by healthcare providers including doctors, health insurers, and hospitals—protections that have been tirelessly fought for by generations of LGBTQAIGNC+ activists. In this decision, the Trump administration redefined sex discrimination as “only applying when someone faces discrimination for being female or male, and does not protect people from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.”

What does this mean for transgender patients? Simply put, this rule would allow healthcare providers to refuse services and treatment to transgender patients IN THE MIDDLE OF A GLOBAL PANDEMIC. To pour salt in the wound, this rule was finalized during Pride month, on the anniversary of the massacre at Pulse, a gay nightclub in Orlando, which resulted in 49 deaths. Again, we can’t believe we have to say this – Transgender people deserve the basic human right to receive healthcare without discrimination!

As psychology students, we know just how detrimental this decision will be to trans health. Transgender individuals have long faced barriers to quality healthcare that are both personal (such as providers’ attitudes towards trans people) and structural (such as lack of insurance coverage for gender-affirming care). In a 2011 survey of over 6000 transgender individuals, 19% report having been being denied healthcare because of their trans identity. In a 2015 NPR poll, a third of trans individuals in the U.S. reported they did not have access to regular healthcare.

The perhaps even more insidious public health threat from this most recent decision is widespread fear, which may cause more trans people to disengage from the healthcare system entirely, going without necessary care until treatable conditions become medical emergencies. The 2011 survey cited above revealed this is already taking place: 28% of trans respondents reported postponing necessary healthcare when sick or injured, and 33% had delayed or not sought preventative care because of fear of discrimination. Nor is this fear unfounded: the reality that trans people now live with every day is that our government is actively trying to kill us. Stripping anti-discrimination protections during a pandemic is tantamount to murder, when trans individuals might forgo COVID testing for fear of discrimination, and are in danger of being left to die by medical professionals who hold personal biases.

And providers who hold these biases have just been authorized to act on them by the highest office in the land. Remember that 19% of trans people reported being denied needed healthcare for being trans. This decision will come down hardest on Black and indigenous trans people, who, by virtue of their positionalities vis-à-vis structural racism, are already at higher risk of severe complications or death from COVID-19.

The executive vice president of the Christian Medical Association, one of the groups who pushed for this decision, lauded the change, stating healthcare professionals must base decisions on “biology and science, not ideology” (quoted by NPR, June 12, 2020). Fair enough! Let’s look at what science does have to say about transgender healthcare:

The science says that experiences of discrimination have detrimental effects on the mental health and mental healthcare utilization of LGBTQ individuals.

The science tells us that social stress, transphobia, stigma, and discrimination are all positively associated with mental health problems.

We know that lack of access to healthcare providers who are adequately knowledgeable about transgender health is the most common barrier to healthcare reported by transgender survey respondents, and that transgender populations experience significant health disparities.

And the science says that having access to a trans-competent healthcare provider decreases depression and suicidality among trans people.

In other words, nowhere in the scientific literature is there support for denying care to transgender patients. Our healthcare needs—and our existence—are not matters of ideology.

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted two truths: (1) that we are all intimately interconnected (such that our behaviors impact the health of others, and we therefore have a responsibility to one another to keep each other safe); and (2) that deep racial inequities in our country and state have a dramatic effect on health outcomes. Taken together, these truths suggest that our healthcare system is only as good as its ability to serve the most marginalized among us.

While none of us can take on Trump directly (and this decision will be legally challenged), as future health service providers, we can start right away in improving trans healthcare by educating ourselves on issues that affect trans health. We can speak up against transphobia in our homes, neighborhoods, classrooms, workplaces, and practicum and internship sites. We can read, listen to, and uplift the voices of trans people, especially Black and Indigenous trans folks. We can unlearn the ways in which we ourselves have internalized cissexism and rethink binary notions of gender.

It’s not all bad news in the land of transgender civil rights. Yesterday, tens of thousands of people gathered in Minneapolis, Brooklyn, and other cities to uplift Black trans voices and demand an end to violence against Black trans women. The trans-led NYC organization GLITS raised over a million dollars over the past week for housing for formerly incarcerated Black trans folks, and are now able to put a down payment on two Manhattan apartment buildings. And today the supreme court ruled that existing protections against sex discrimination also apply to LGBTQAIGNC+ folks, making firing someone for being trans illegal in all 50 states. Still, my social media feed is awash with posts from trans folks who had experienced employment discrimination in states where it was already illegal.

Addressing a crowd of several thousand people who turned out to a march organized by Black Visions Collective to demand the city of Minneapolis defund its police department, Representative Ilhan Omar reminded us that in the fight for social justice, each step forward triggers a wave of backlash: “with each progress, there is regression.” This regression will always most severely impact those who are already the most vulnerable to discrimination and state violence. What the Trump administration is currently doing is waging war on transgender people by attempting to legally define us out of existence, while leaving our BIPOC (Black, indigenous, and people of color) siblings to die. There is much work that remains to be done.

Projects and organizations that support & advocate for the transgender community:

Local Resources –

  • Trans* Awareness Project MN: A list of resources and organizations for trans-identified folks in the Twin Cities area. 
  • MN Transgender Health Coalition: The Minnesota Transgender Health Coalition is committed to improving health care access and the quality of health care received by trans and gender nonconforming people through education, resources, and advocacy. 

National Resources –

  • Trans Lifeline (877-565-8860): Peer support service run by trans people, for trans and questioning callers.
  • The Okra Project: The Okra Project is a collective that seeks to address the global crisis faced by Black Trans people by bringing home cooked, healthy, and culturally specific meals and resources to Black Trans People wherever we can reach them. 
  • The National Center for Transgender Equality: Provides information on advocacy at the national, state, and local level. They also offer information on transgender peoples’ rights and legal protections across various areas of life. 
  • The Transgender Law Center: Largest trans-led organization advocating self-determination and community-driven strategies to keep transgender and gender nonconforming people alive, thriving, and fighting for liberation.

Milo Due (they/them) holds a Master’s degree in psychology from the New School for Social Research in NYC, where they worked as a sex educator and studied the therapeutic alliance. As a current PsyD student at Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, they are passionate about improving access to competent and affirming mental health care for queer and trans communities and exploring the ways in which the practice of counseling psychology can advance social justice.

MPA Statement on the Death of George Floyd

The Minnesota Psychological Association seeks to add to the voices recognizing the horror and injustice of the death of George Floyd and see this unjustified killing as an act of racism that may eventually be classified as a hate crime. We realize that there is an increase in the presence of racism, hate and discrimination in our society and that the Dept. of Justice has identified that the majority of hate crimes (59.9 percent) continue to be those around the issue of race/ethnicity/ancestry. Of the hate crimes around race, most are against African Americans. African Americans also experience the most incidents of discrimination and become the victims of “mentalcide,” the psychological process of treating them as “less than human.” Consequently, African Americans have endured the brunt of inhumane treatment by law enforcement officers in our country.

Our research shows that police officers speak with consistently less respect toward black versus white community members and invariably, African Americans are incarcerated in state prisons at a rate that is 10 times the imprisonment of whites, and are more likely to die at the hands of law enforcement than their White counterparts, even if they are unarmed.

The impact of these injustices in the name of law enforcement must be viewed in light of historical trauma for the African American community as well as the future implications of long lasting psychological, emotional and physical distress. The compounded effects of direct and vicarious dehumanization, historical trauma, microaggressions, invisibility, intersectional oppression, and discrimination create biological markers similar to physical assault6 and may contribute to a level of racial trauma that can be life threatening.

Furthermore, Anxiety, Depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are some of the mental health disorders that follow individuals who bear witness to this kind of inequity and brutality. Let’s not forget the implications for our children, who stand to have difficulties with concentration, learning, sleep, and generally feeling unsafe in their own homes and communities. Those of us who witnessed George Floyd taking his last breath, as he yelled “I can’t breathe,” are left to make sense of his demise.

The Minnesota Psychological Association supports George Floyd’s right to breathe in the state of Minnesota. We recognize that if George Floyd and communities of color cannot breathe in our state, it is an injustice that we must confront. In accordance with the 2017 APA Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct, psychologists strive to avoid harm and to uphold the dignity and worth of all individuals. The Minnesota Psychological Association would like to add our voices to others recognizing the brutality of this unjustifiable act. We encourage the Minnesota community to stand together in processing the residual effects of this event on our psyche.

We stand in support of Minneapolis Police Chief Arredondo, Minneapolis Mayor Jacob Frey, St. Paul Police Chief Todd Axtell, and St. Paul Mayor Melvin Carter for their swift and decisive response to the four police officers involved in the incident. We stand in support of, and solidarity with, the Minneapolis community in their effort to seek justice for George Floyd. We stand in support of the close examination and reform of racial bias and police brutality in the Minneapolis Police Department.

1. U.S. Dept. of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigations, Criminal Justice information.2012, Retrieved (

2. Chou, T., Asnaani, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups. Cultural diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(1), 74–81.

3. Goff, P. A., Eberhardt, J. L., Williams, M. J., & Jackson, M. C. (2008). Not Yet Human: Implicit Knowledge, Historical Dehumanization, and Contemporary Consequences, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 94, No. 2, 292–306.

4. Edwards, F., Lee, H., & Esposito, M. (2019). Risk of being killed by police use of force in the United States by age, race–ethnicity, and sex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (34) 16793-16798.

5. Swaine, J., Laughland, O. & Lartey, J. (2015) Black Americans killed by police twice as likely to be unarmed as white people. The Guardian, Retrieved at 05.28.2020…/black-americans-killed-by-pol…).

6. Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290–292. doi:10.1126/science.1089134.

7. Helms, J., Nicolas, G., & Green, C. E. (2012). Racism and ethnoviolence as trauma: Enhancing professional and research training. Traumatology, 8, 65-74.

Finding Balance in an Unbalanced World

By Dante Williams, M. A.

Sometimes it is so easy to become distracted or lose sight of what our goals are as graduate students. In today’s world we are thrown into a whirlwind of uncertainties not knowing when COVID-19 will be ending or when our society will open up and return to “normal”. In the midst of this, we as therapists and local psychological scientists are forced to put on a face of calmness, balance, and optimism. However, many of us are not okay, in fact we are concerned just like our clients but we can’t express to them how scared we might be or embrace the uncertainties of the world we are living. On top of this, we have school work and papers due for our classes and deadlines too which might further increase our anxiety and stress. I am not a perfect person, but I do have some ways to mitigate stress and have a feeling of accomplishment during these trying times. 

Do not be afraid to ask for assistance

This was a huge one for me to start doing. I have a challenge with being vulnerable and asking for help when I need it, so for me to tell someone that I need their assistance is a pretty big deal. There is no shame in asking for assistance or telling someone that we need them. The strongest thing we can do is practice humility and proactively seek out help when needed. 

Take breaks when needed 

The race is not given to the swift or the strong to he/ she that endures till the end. This is a motto that I go by when I feel the need to rush or overextend myself. It is so important that we pace ourselves, most of us reading this article are overachievers and we want to strive to be the best, but we need to be sure that we stop and breathe every once and a while.  

Communicate to your professors if you are having difficulties staying up with course work

Again, this was a hard concept for me to grasp and be ok with. I am not a person who likes to give excuses, but at the same time realize that there is only so much we can do, and certain things are out of our control. No one wants COVID- 19 to be around but it is here and it is causing serious issues in our lives. So if you are getting behind, advocate for yourself and most professors will be flexible and not be too harsh with you in terms of deadlines. 

Stay connected to your peers and support system as much as possible 

This is so important since it can be difficult to physically see our peers and friends. Utilize zoom conference call, google meetups, or other video conferencing systems to stay connected. Believe me if you do this you will feel better and mitigate the feeling of isolation. 

Find an outlet that brings you joy 

Lastly, do something that makes you happy and you feel give you hope for a better tomorrow. If you have hobbies that can be done at home do them and do them frequently. As terrible the situation, we find ourselves in there is some positivity that we can be excited about. We now have time to think and be mindful of what we are doing and the direction we are going in our lives. 

Dante has well over a decade of successful experiences as a Manager and Human Resources professional. He has a passion to help people strive to obtain their goals. Dante received his Bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Metro State University and later earned his Master’s degree from Saint Mary’s University. He is currently is in pursuit of his doctorate degree in Psychology at the University of St. Thomas. With his training and vision, he desires to help people become the best version of themselves. He also has recently started a podcast called “Better You Today!” where he discusses topics in mental health and tips to help people live happy and productive lives.

For Doctoral Students Applying for Internship this Fall: APPIC Announcements Coming Soon

The notice below was posted by APPIC.


We would like your assistance in notifying students who will be applying for internship this coming Fall about the existence of APPIC’s MATCH-NEWS e-mail list.  An easy way to notify future internship applicants is to forward them a copy of this e-mail message.

The MATCH-NEWS e-mail list is an essential source of information about the APPIC Match.  We VERY STRONGLY recommend that ALL students subscribe to MATCH-NEWS themselves rather than rely on others to forward the announcements to them.

In the coming weeks and months, APPIC will be distributing some important announcements about the Match, the AAPI, the APPIC Directory, etc., and it is imperative that all students receive this information.  All Directors of Clinical Training (DCTs) and Internship Training Directors should be subscribed as well.  Information about how to subscribe to MATCH-NEWS is provided below.  

Thanks for your assistance.  If you wish to unsubscribe from this list, please see the instructions at the end of this message.



MATCH-NEWS is a free e-mail list provided by APPIC as a service to Match participants.  It is very strongly recommended that all internship applicants (as well as academic and internship Training Directors) subscribe to this list as early as possible in the process (i.e., subscribe now if you plan to apply to internship programs this Fall).  Students who are not yet ready for internship are also welcome to subscribe.  MATCH-NEWS is an “announce-only” list, which means that only APPIC can post messages to the list.  The volume of e-mail messages will generally be very small, usually ranging from zero to five messages per month.  As the Match approaches, MATCH-NEWS will be the primary method of communicating important late-breaking news and information about the Match, as well as tips and suggestions about how to make the most of the process.  Many applicants from previous years have told us that the messages posted to MATCH-NEWS were extremely helpful to them in navigating the selection process.

NOTE:  If you previously signed up for MATCH-NEWS and are receiving messages, there is no need to sign up again.

To subscribe to the MATCH-NEWS e-mail list, send a blank e-mail message to the following address:

You will subsequently receive an e-mail message (with the subject line, “Your confirmation needed”) that contains instructions for you to follow in order to confirm your subscription.  Simply follow the instructions in that message, and you will soon receive a “Welcome” e-mail in response.  This “Welcome” e-mail confirms that you are successfully subscribed to the list (please note that you are NOT subscribed to the list until you have received the “Welcome” message).

PLEASE NOTE:  If your e-mail program uses “Spam” or “Junk Mail” filtering, it is possible that the confirmation message from the APPIC server will be automatically redirected to your “Junk Mail” folder without your knowledge.  If you do not receive a confirmation message in your “Inbox,” you should check your “Spam” or “Junk Mail” folder to see if the message is there.

See the contact info below if you have difficulty subscribing.



For general information about the APPIC Match, see:

and click on the “Internships” pull-down menu, then “About the APPIC Match.”  General information is also available at the matching program web site:

Please note that both of these sites will be updated for the 2021 APPIC Match later this summer.

For complete information about all of APPIC’s e-mail lists, see and click on “E-mail Lists.”

If you have any questions about the APPIC Match in general, you may contact Dr. Greg Keilin at or (512) 410-0002.  For assistance with APPIC’s e-mail lists, please contact the APPIC List Manager, Dr. Cecilia Sun, at .

Don’t Panic

By David Van Engen

…or if it’s too late, read this.

It’s funny. Whenever someone tell you to not panic, it’s probably already too late. As college students, it’s safe to say that we live in a near-constant state of anxiety. Often, we like to tell others that we thrive in this environment, and sometimes we do. Much of the time, our brains are filled with a colorful marching band of stress that loves to parade around in our heads at 2 am. Student loans? Check. Procrastination? Massive check. An international COVID-19 pandemic?


Deep breath. Whew.

Okay. This sucks. A lot. All online classes? Depending on your school’s format, this can be a dramatic adjustment. Seeing everyone’s pets is pretty cool but Zoom fatigue is real. Once the joy of being able to wear sweatpants wears off, it’s easy to let a lot of things slide. Like showers. You didn’t think it was possible, but you can bring procrastination to a whole new level.

Undergrad students have found themselves moving back home after student housing closed abruptly. A lot of graduate students are either in practicum or getting ready to apply for next year. Doctoral students are scrambling to figure out how the heck this pandemic will affect their prospects at scoring or holding onto their internship or postdoc site.

This is a lot of adjustment, a lot of stress. Why sugar coat it?

It would be easy to write a fluff piece on practicing mindfulness or self care and those things are definitely helpful. But you know what? This is hard. You have a dozen unanswered questions. Things seem pretty damned uncertain and everyone is regrouping. It’s easy to turn inward and do everything imaginable to not think about it. But you are all future therapists. We know in our bones that avoidance can only take us so far.

So here’s your chance to let some of that out. Tell us about your experiences. Your anxiety. Your questions. Tell us what’s working for you as you try to cope. Tell us what doesn’t. This blog is for all of us. Share your experiences, read about your fellow classmates, and maybe things will seem a little more manageable. The MPA Student Division will also feature guest writers to talk about topical issues like financial aid, ethical dilemmas, or how to make your life easier. But ultimately, we want to hear from you.

Click here for details on how to contribute an article.

Grief from the Perspective of an International Student

By Quincy Guinadi

I have never resonated with a gif so much more than this one:

When the US began having a huge increase in COVID19 cases and states began to instate stay-at-home orders, a collective grief and loss of our livelihood was immediately felt. I remember noticing an influx of podcasts and articles on collective grief and naming the loss of a way of existence. I also noticed an increase of folks on my facebook wall mourning the loss of comfort, stability, and control over their future. I resonated with how they felt, but this wasn’t a new feeling. I had a déjà vu moment and realized that as an international student, this was not the first time I experienced the loss of a way of existence.

I grieved for my newly found community when I struggled to find a company to sponsor my work visa and had to go back home. I grieved for my safety and future when I returned to the United States for my Master’s program the year Trump got elected. I grieved for the ability to feel welcomed and safe as racial tensions grew in the United States. I grieved for any sense of stability and the freedom to visit my friends and family back at home when the executive order for an immigration halt recently took place.

Grieving for a way of life is not new to international students.

International students are often kept on their toes from having to constantly keep up-to-date about immigration and visa changes. These changes largely impact our financial, career, and educational future. Yet, we have zero voting abilities or control over the decisions made that would change our course in life. When I got furloughed from my on-campus job, I went into a frenzy. How was I going to afford groceries? How was I going to afford rent? Do I burden my family by asking them for money? Do I qualify for unemployment as an alien? In my moment of desperation, I drafted an email to my school’s president begging him to consider the work restrictions international students have and to provide some sort of financial aid. My desperation paid off and my school decided to continue to provide international student workers with financial aid. In that moment, I grieved for a sense of stability.

Back to that gif — I often feel that as an international student, I am not allowed to complain about my grief and losses. I often feel that I am expected to be compliant and readily agree to any changes made. Comments like “well you chose to come here for an education” or “If you don’t like it, then go home” invalidates my pain.

In times when I feel out of control, I like to think “what would I tell a client?” Most of the time, my go-to advice would be to (1) acknowledge the grief and pain you’re experiencing, (2) go to safe spaces and people that you know can support and respect your feelings, and (3) practice self-compassion and gratitude despite the hardships.

If you are an international student reading this, know that you are never alone and you are allowed to have feelings! I always turn to my Students of Color Support Group in my school as a safe space to express my grief and pain. Reaching out to other international students within your program, school, or state are helpful too! If you are an APA member, the international section of Division 17 recently started hosting zoom check-ins for international students. Also feel me to reach out to me!

If you are a local student reading this, I encourage you to check in on your international friends. If you have the capacity to hold a safe space for them, offer it to them.

Being a Student of Color (SOC) in the age of COVID-19

By David Van Engen

Dirty looks from strangers while out in public. Muttered, derogatory comments in passing. Being followed around stores by managers and staff. As a Korean American, I’ve lived with this kind of behavior from others for my entire life. Overt, covert microaggressions. Outright, racist b*******, if we’re being totally honest. This is during the best of times. The outbreak of COVID-19 has seen a significant increase in harassment and hate crimes directed against Asian Americans and immigrants. Discrimination directed against minorities in the U.S. during times of crisis is nothing new; in fact, it’s an American tradition.

In addition to the regular stressors faced by college students, being a person of color in the U.S. brings additional challenges. Whether that comes from feeling out of place in a largely heterogeneous campus or awkwardly painful classroom discussions on diversity, it’s a lot to hold. When COVID-19 was brought to the world’s attention in late 2019, I distinctly remember thinking to myself that if the virus came to America, it would be Asian’s turn to be the focus of misguided discrimination. As time passed and the contagion spread around the globe, I experienced a growing unease that my initial thought was coming true. This feeling stayed with me, in the pit of my stomach as the number of cases began to rise in Europe, on cruise ships, and eventually the U.S. After that I couldn’t stay off the news. I was continually scanning for stories of racial discrimination, hate crimes, and targeting by politicians. This took a hefty toll on my overall sense of well-being. I knew I wasn’t alone in feeling like this but I certainly felt isolated.

In March, I was on a walk with my wife and we encountered an older woman lying on the sidewalk who had fallen and [to my medically-trained eye] had clearly broken her collarbone. I offered assistance to help stabilize her for transport to the hospital but was flatly rejected by her partner. I told her I had emergency medical training. Her partner told me to leave them alone. She wouldn’t say why, she just glared at me. Eventually, the woman on the sidewalk who was in pain said “oh let him help me already.” So I did (despite being irate). We stabilized the shoulder in an improvised sling and sent her off to get medical treatment. As we walked away, my wife said “so that’s what you’ve been talking about, isn’t it?” This incident stayed with me, doing little to help my growing frustration. Later that week, I was at the grocery and received racist comments from people in the aisles.

So I decided to stay inside as much as possible. Screw it.

But that didn’t make things better. In fact, it got worse. My consumption of the news increased as did my preoccupation. This cycle continued for a couple of weeks. My wife noticed, as did my friends. Trying to break my funk, I attended an online meeting of my graduate program’s Student’s of Color, Multiracial and Indigenous peoples group (SOCMI). There, students talked about their COVID-19-related experiences, fears, and uncertainties. It was wonderful and for the first time in months, I didn’t feel alone as a SOC. I felt like myself again. Upon reflection it struck me how quickly one can turn inward and allow anxiety to influence behaviors.

So if you’re a SOC, this blog entry is for you. You are not alone. If you’re not an SOC, this is also for you. Be supportive. Advocate for yourself and for your fellows. Be mindful of safety. Talk to each other. Form support groups, attend digital happy hours and game nights. But most importantly, be cheerfully defiant. Otherwise the bigots win.

Screw them. We aren’t going anywhere.

The APA offers some insight into the psychology of bias-motivated actions and hate crimes as well as tips on fighting them here.

If you’ve been the victim of a hate crime or discriminatory acts, go here.

Telehealth Resources for Practicum Students and Interns

With the COVID-19 pandemic, training sites and graduate programs are scrambling to ensure that their students can get the experience and hours that they need. With most clinics moving their services to an online format, the transition can be a little jarring. We’ve compiled some resources on telehealth services as it pertains to practicum students and interns. This list will be updated regularly.

Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC)

American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines for telepsychology.

APA advice for psychology supervisors and trainees during COVID-19

COVID-19 Information

It’s pretty easy during times like this to become overwhelmed with the sheer volume of COVID-19-related information out there. Some of it is good, much of it is questionable in terms of validity and reliability. We’ve compiled a number of sources for information within the public domain that can be considered reliable, well-researched, and peer-reviewed. This list will be updated regularly.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

State of Minnesota COVID-19 Website

The University of Minnesota Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP)

World Health Organization (WHO)